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Sáfrány Zsolt
Sáfrány Zsolt

Kontekst: a comprehensive guide to the meaning and usage of context in communication and discourse


What is Kontekst?




Kontekst is a word that comes from Latin contextus, meaning "a weaving together". It refers to the set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event, situation, or message. Kontekst helps us to understand the meaning and intention behind what we read, hear, or see. Without kontekst, we might misinterpret or miss important information.


Kontekst is not only a word, but also a concept that is used in various fields and disciplines, such as linguistics, communication, translation, education, psychology, sociology, and more. In this article, we will explore what kontekst is, why it is important, what types of kontekst exist, what challenges it poses for translation, and what benefits it offers for learning.




kontekst


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The Importance of Kontekst in Communication




Communication is the process of exchanging information, ideas, feelings, or opinions between two or more parties. Communication can take place through different modes, such as verbal (spoken or written), non-verbal (body language or gestures), visual (images or symbols), or auditory (sounds or music). Communication can also occur in different settings, such as face-to-face, online, or mediated.


Kontekst plays a crucial role in communication because it provides clues and cues that help us to interpret and respond to messages appropriately. Kontekst helps us to:


  • Identify the purpose and goal of communication



  • Determine the tone and style of communication



  • Infer the meaning and implication of words and expressions



  • Recognize the emotions and attitudes of communicators



  • Establish rapport and trust with communicators



  • Avoid misunderstandings and conflicts



Types of Kontekst




Kontekst can be classified into different types, depending on the source and nature of the information that it provides. Some of the common types of kontekst are:


Linguistic Kontekst




Linguistic kontekst refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word or expression in a text or speech. Linguistic kontekst helps us to understand the meaning and function of words and expressions, as well as their grammatical and logical relationships. For example, consider the word "bank". Depending on the linguistic kontekst, it could mean a financial institution, a river shore, or a verb meaning to tilt or turn. Linguistic kontekst can be further divided into two subtypes:


  • Co-text: The immediate linguistic kontekst that precedes or follows a word or expression. For example, in the sentence "She went to the bank to withdraw some money", the co-text helps us to infer that "bank" means a financial institution.



  • Inter-text: The broader linguistic kontekst that relates to a text or speech as a whole. For example, in a news article about economics, the inter-text helps us to assume that "bank" means a financial institution.



Situational Kontekst




Situational kontekst refers to the physical and temporal environment in which communication takes place. Situational kontekst helps us to understand the setting and circumstances of communication, as well as the roles and identities of communicators. For example, consider the phrase "How are you?". Depending on the situational kontekst, it could be a genuine inquiry, a polite greeting, or a rhetorical question. Situational kontekst can be further divided into two subtypes:


kontekst.io


kontekstualno slične riječi


kontekstno podobne besede


kontekst u govoru


kontekst i betydning


kontekst i kultur


kontekst i kommunikation


kontekst i litteratur


kontekst i pisanju


kontekst i učenju


kontekst i historie


kontekst i filosofi


kontekst i sociologiji


kontekst i psihologiji


kontekst i lingvistici


kontekst i pragmatiki


kontekst i semiotici


kontekst i diskursu


kontekst i analizi


kontekst i interpretaciji


kontekst i argumentaciji


kontekst i retorici


kontekst i kritici


kontekst i teoriji


kontekst i metodologiji


kontekst u umjetnosti


kontekst u dizajnu


kontekst u arhitekturi


kontekst u muzici


kontekst u filmu


kontekst u pozorištu


kontekst u fotografiji


kontekst u slikarstvu


kontekst u književnosti


kontekst u poeziji


kontekst u prozi


kontekst u drami


kontekst u humoru


kontekst u ironiji


kontekst u metafori


kontekst u politici


kontekst u medijima


kontekst u novinarstvu


kontekst u reklamiranju


kontekst u obrazovanju


kontekst u nastavi


kontekst u kurikulumu


kontekst u evaluaciji


kontekst u istraživanju


  • Micro-context: The specific situational kontekst that involves the immediate time and place of communication. For example, in a doctor's office, the micro-context helps us to interpret "How are you?" as a genuine inquiry.



  • Macro-context: The general situational kontekst that involves the wider time and place of communication. For example, in a pandemic situation, the macro-context helps us to interpret "How are you?" as a polite greeting.



Cultural Kontekst




Cultural kontekst refers to the social and historical background that influences the norms and values of communication. Cultural kontekst helps us to understand the beliefs and assumptions of communicators, as well as their expectations and preferences. For example, consider the gesture of thumbs up. Depending on the cultural kontekst, it could mean approval, encouragement, or insult. Cultural kontekst can be further divided into two subtypes:


  • Socio-cultural context: The shared situational kontekst that involves the common characteristics and experiences of a group of people. For example, in Western cultures, the socio-cultural context helps us to interpret thumbs up as approval.



  • Personal context: The individual situational kontekst that involves the unique characteristics and experiences of a person. For example, in some Middle Eastern cultures, the personal context helps us to interpret thumbs up as insult.



The Challenges of Kontekst in Translation




Translation is the process of transferring information, ideas, feelings, or opinions from one language to another. Translation can be done for different purposes, such as education, business, entertainment, or diplomacy. Translation can also involve different types of texts, such as literary, technical, legal, or medical.


Kontekst poses a significant challenge for translation because it is often difficult or impossible to find equivalent words and expressions in different languages that convey the same meaning and intention. Moreover, kontekst can vary greatly across cultures and situations, requiring translators to adapt their choices and strategies accordingly. Some of the challenges and solutions related to kontekst in translation are:


The Problem of Equivalence




Equivalence is the degree of similarity or correspondence between two linguistic units in different languages. Equivalence can be measured at different levels, such as lexical (word), syntactic (sentence), semantic (meaning), pragmatic (use), or stylistic (effect). Equivalence can also be classified into different types, such as formal (literal), dynamic (functional), or cultural (contextual).


The problem of equivalence is that it is often hard or impossible to find equivalent linguistic units in different languages that match all the levels and types of equivalence. For example, consider the word "snow". In English, there is only one word for snow, but in some languages, such as Inuit or Finnish, there are multiple words for snow that distinguish its different forms and states. Conversely, in some languages, such as Arabic or Hebrew, there is no single word for snow, but rather a phrase or a description. Therefore, translating the word "snow" from or into these languages would require either adding or omitting information that may affect the kontekst.


The Role of Adaptation




Adaptation is the process of modifying or adjusting a text or speech to suit the needs and expectations of the target audience and culture. Adaptation can involve different techniques, such as localization (customizing to a specific locale), transcreation (recreating to a different style), or naturalization (making more familiar or acceptable).


The role of adaptation is to overcome the problem of equivalence by finding alternative ways to convey the kontekst in a way that is appropriate and effective for the target language and culture. For example, consider the idiom "it's raining cats and dogs". In English, this idiom means that it is raining heavily, but in other languages, this idiom may not make sense or may have a different meaning. Therefore, translating this idiom would require adapting it to a different idiom or expression that has a similar meaning and effect in the target language and culture. For instance, in French, one could say "il pleut des cordes" (it's raining ropes), or in Spanish, one could say "llueve a cántaros" (it's raining pitchers).


The Use of Technology




Technology is the application of scientific knowledge and tools to solve practical problems or achieve specific goals. Technology can be used for various purposes and functions related to translation, such as input (capturing text or speech), output (producing text or speech), analysis (understanding text or speech), synthesis (generating text or speech), storage (saving text or speech), retrieval (accessing text or speech), or management (organizing text or spee


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